User Score
8.1

Generally favorable reviews- based on 1687 Ratings

User score distribution:

Review this game

  1. Your Score
    0 out of 10
    Rate this:
    • 10
    • 9
    • 8
    • 7
    • 6
    • 5
    • 4
    • 3
    • 2
    • 1
    • 0
    • 0
  1. Submit
  2. Check Spelling
  1. Oct 14, 2012
    10
    Superb. Feels very much like the real deal but with an updated engine and annoying fiddles removed.

    I noticed one review saying they hated it because you can't save everyone and you will lose countries. Well.. Yes... You will.. Sorry that's unavoidable. It's about winning the war, not the battles and figuring out which countries you can cope without is a big part of the game.

    Also of
    note in this is the way you get attached to your soldiers as you build them up. To the point where you actually feel really bad if one of your favourites dies, which is sadly likely. And this is what makes it a dynamic unfolding drama of your own making rather than a lot of the super-structured games where you just win win win.

    The tactical combat in this is genuinely brilliant. Cover and the use of flanking is VITAL in this game and all the better for it.
    Expand
  2. Oct 9, 2012
    9
    Critics have said that turn based shooters are dead, but I think this iteration of XCOM goes a long way to prove them wrong. I can honestly say, without sarcasm or implications, that if the original XCOM were made today, this is what it would be like. It is a very faithful representation of the original, and if you were a fan (like I was), you will probably enjoy this as well. The fact that the economy/base building aspect wasn't cut was a huge plus to me. Now, to be clear, there are a few changes/issues. Difficulty is not so high, and you won't have everyone die as soon as they step off the transport for the first mission (this can be either good or bad). The soldier voices are all bland American accents, and while it's a small thing it's jarring in a squad of international operatives. The loadout is a more simplified than I'd like, but not enough that it annoys me. Anyway, apart from a few minor issues I feel XCOM is an extremely fun game and well worth a look. Expand
  3. Dec 3, 2012
    9
    This game was simply fantastic. It offers a long singleplayer campaign (I got about 50 hrs out of it) which has a good amount of depth while still being very accessible. I haven't played the original XCOM, so I won't compare it against that, but it's clear that this game could have been a lot more complex and allowed for many more strategic options. By mid-game, it begins to suffer from these limitations since you are limited to only having one party of troops out at a time or intercepting one UFO at a time. You also begin to run out of things to research, making your investments in labs less valuable. The combat is also very unforgiving, and if you're playing it on normal difficulty or above you will end up paying dearly for many mistakes (unless you are willing to save/reload regularly). Personally I liked that this game wasn't easy, but felt that it was occasionally too brutal: all it takes is one wrong move and your squad of elite troops might get slaughtered. Despite these critiques, the new XCOM is definitely a great game and well worth your time and money. Expand
  4. Jul 18, 2013
    9
    Overall a very successful reboot of the X-COM franchise. The general tone of the game and mood of the turn-based combat are near perfect. The graphics are fine. Sound and voice work are solid. The divide between base management and tactical battles is also good. It is possible to knit-pick quite a few areas where the game is underwhelming: Tactical maps are too small and too similar. LOS is obscure. There is no tactical mini-map. The squad size is too small. These are all relatively minor points that could be addressed in an expansion or patch, though I doubt we will get one. The real key to enjoying this game is to do a first play through on easy and learn the mechanisms. When you understand how it works you can re-try on harder difficulty until you find the level of toughness which is personally most enjoyable. Overall this game is a definite buy at or under $20. With luck there may be future versions of this game which improve the tactical controls and increase the strategic complication! Let's hope so. Orctowngrot: timtimjp@yahoo.com Expand
  5. Dec 19, 2012
    9
    XCOM is basically a flawed classic, it needed to be made to reboot one of the best game series in the strategy hall of fame, but they have messed up in some areas, none of which spoilt the game for me. I bought my first PC as a teenager when the original UFO Enemy Unknown came out, it was that good... now about 15 years or so later the remake is out and it's pretty faithful while trimming down some aspects. The game is a lot faster paced than the original, whih is a good thing, but they took some of the freedom out of the game in doing so.... it was nice to fully customise loadouts in the original game, that is now pretty much gone and a very basic system replaces it...I don't really miss the action point system as the new mode it generally better. The biggest issues with the game are more to do with game balancing which can often be stupidly unfair and unrealstic, it seems a 90+% hit chance more often than not will statistically fail more than it succeeds, so feels like you get cheated by the game quite a lot..... Other main issues are to do with terrain problems with rendering, but most of that was fixed in the last patch. Expand
  6. May 13, 2013
    9
    I'm afraid "old school" x-com fan boys are scaring away people from this game. I see so many old school fans complain about how "This game isn't as good as the original" and 0 out of 10 because the original is better and this sucks". That's not fair. I'm not bashing old school fans, but just because the remake/reboot isn't as good doesn't make it crap. Go play the original all you want! But don't drag this game down because of it. I am aware this game has some issues. Such as the bulls*it free move aliens get during your turn, and some crash to desktop bugs (which are extreamly rare.) But that doesn't make this game bad. Aside from those problems, i sit and play this game for hours at a time. Its fun and addicting. You also get attached to your soldiers, and get legitimately sad or pissed off when they die. All in all, its problems held it back from being the best game of last year, but it still one of my favorites. Expand
  7. Mar 25, 2013
    9
    If there's one thing I dislike in gaming genres, it's strategy games. Just pointing and clicking, it feels a bit meaningless. NOT in "XCOM: Enemy Unknown". You control a base with a researchlab, scientists, soldiers and all the Science Fiction goodiness! Even some of the easiest mission may provide the "rookies" among us for a real challenge, due to intelligent AI and clever combat mechanics. A mindchanging game for me! Expand
  8. Jun 6, 2013
    10
    This is the first strategy based game I have been able to enjoy in years. For those complaining about the game not being enough like the original; I dont understand it. This is, imo, the perfect modern incarnate of the old XCOM. We are talking about an 18 year gap between games, it needed the change and they did it very well.
    This game has extremely intuitive features and excellent story
    and gameplay for a strategy game. I felt involved and driven by the story, and I felt connected to and protective of my soldiers. Good character customization and development.
    The only complaint I can give about this game is that although you can change the skin color and general ethnicity of your characters, you cannot change their nationality and flag. Even though you can change a character from white, to Asian, to Mexican, to African, you cannot change the country he belongs to from, for example, Brazil. They say in the forums it is a prejudiced thing, but I believe the power to change skin color contradicts that claim horribly. This just seriously hinders the amazingly fun ability to create teams of your own imagination. Such as a team of you and your friends, however your best friend Tommy has to be from China, and your brother Chuck was secretly born over the border in Mexico.
    However, the game is an extremely solid 10 for a strategy game. I have never played one more interesting than this one. I must confess before I wrap up that this game possibly gets extra points from me purely based off the fun factor I experienced. It was just fun.
    Expand
  9. Nov 9, 2012
    9
    If you ignore its origins (and most reviewing this game should as they most likely never played the original) and look at this game as a solo effort its a wonderful game. Great graphics, challenging maps and resource management and AI that is responsive. Its been a long time since a good turn based game has come out and this one gives me faith that the turn based strategy games are not a dead genre but a living, breathing genre that has promise. Expand
  10. Oct 9, 2012
    10
    This version of XCOM actually has MORE depth than the original. The bits that added little to the (classic) original have been removed or altere while tactical (combat based) and strategic ("base" based) options have been added that actually add to ythe thought that's required to succeed. Examples Disembarking - man that was a pain, one well placed grenade and your entire squad wiped before you'd started your second turn and split up to avoid being one large target for me this always meant a reload of a saved game. It just annoyed me when it happened, now it doesn't. "Bug hunt" endings. Scouring maps for that one last alien who had decided to stand in a cupboard, 90 minutes trying to find it, ending up just being bored and making a careless mistake or just quitting the game - gone...Unrealistic micro customization - In the original you could force any soldier to become anything. That's not realistic at all. A 5 foot 3 sharpshooter moulded into being a musclebound heavy weapons carrier "just because you need one" It might offer you control - but at the expense of any level or realism. The movement simpified in use, but actually increased in tactical options. Moce a squad member a level? Easy! - No special button to take the view up or down required, how about over a wall or through a window. SImple, no 3 level menu system to go through, it will calculate it, and you will know whether you have the ability to continue with another action after or not. All the calculations are there if you play, but they are transparent to the user, leaving you just to work out what is best rather than micro analysing action points. Supression fire? Opportunity fire, different levels of cover? These allow you to work out some pretty snazzy tactics. Your troops level in a way that makes it fab. Actual abilities are learned that expand your tactical options, some are passive, some used on a turn based "cooldown" - all make a difference if used in the right place. Morale, Psi attacks. It's all there - it just doesn't require micro management. I thought I would miss micro management - but I don't - not one bit. For me - someone who loves to see a proper AAA turn based game (at LAST - after Sooooo many FPS..aren't FPS bored to tears with the same game being sold over and over and over and over) Xcom is a breath of fresh air. The moddability of the PC game means we can expect maps, missions and TC's in the next few months that will keep this game on my hard drive and being played almost indefinitely. 10/10 Best game I've played since Jagged Alliance 2 or Rebelstar. Well done Firaxis, after the relative mess of Civ 5 you are back with a bang. Best game of 2012 by a mile. Expand
  11. May 10, 2013
    9
    A clever game for gamers that seek a challenge. It has a mediocre tutorial that does not fulfill its role, so the learning curve is steep and at the first walthrough you will be learning by mistakes unfortunately. If you are new to XCOM series you will like it more than the veterans, because this game is a much dumbed cousin of its elders. The game is quite addicting thanks to some RPG/RTS elements. The deeper you go the more new stuff you discover and new weapons. Other times the missions are nearly impossible to accomplish because you for example get thrown with little to no cover into a swarm of bazooka wielding giants. The natural part of the frustration is losing your men (and women heh) other times you will have to sacrifice newbies to get a clear shot for the captain. The game can be really hard even at normal difficulty setting so much so that if you`re new to this I highly recommend not selecting a higher setting than normal. The maps are fairly varied, not too much but just enough to keep going forward. There are also a few mission types, honestly here I was dissapointed. Overall the campaign is good, it proceeds just when it is about to get stale. Some strategy and thinking is required. I played 33hours to get through the whole thing, which is a huge number for a game nowadays. Moreso, the game is built the way that makes you want to beat it at least twice, because the first time you did not know the whole set of rules. Gaphics and music is okay. Overall lots of gameplay for this price so a 8.6 out of 10. Expand
  12. Nov 6, 2013
    10
    Fire Emblem with guns? Pretty much- you must get this game if you love strategy/RPGs. I loved this game for its story, its gameplay for giving players the ability (and responsibility) to make choices that affect the resistance to alien invasion. Best of all, I loved having my soldiers rank up and become specialists. The game is well thought out, as enemies generally spawn in random locations so you can’t just restart a level once you know where the enemy is. My only regret about this game is that once you really get the ball rolling with powerful soldiers, weapons, and income, the game ends rather abruptly. Other than that (and some production issues, like being able to shoot through solid objects to hit targets), the game is nearly flawless. Expand
  13. Oct 16, 2012
    10
    There's some minor issues, the most annoying of which being that sometimes moving people around inside a UFO is really a hassle due to the roof blocking your view, and other times people won't want to move to high or low ground. Some areas could also be beefed up in complexity (interception), but on the whole they really nailed this one. The game is addictively fun and brilliantly captures the "just one more turn" feeling. Fans of the 1993 version will be able to find things to complain about, as this is not a straight remake. It's a 2012 take on the game, and while not everything is the same the spirit of the classic version is alive and well here. If you're not familiar with the classic X-COM, then any strategy fan should go buy this right now. Collapse
  14. Jan 27, 2013
    9
    Really been waiting for this game to be released and did not get disappointed. Just have to set the expectations right towards this one. It was not meant to be a 1:1 remake of "Ufo: Enemy Unknown". Yes it got a little different, but they've made a good job on it. Gameplay is fluent. Base building, researching, training soldiers, graphics, sounds, everything pretty well done, fun to play and also having some replay value due to the different difficulties and game modes. So why not 10/10? For example cause of the way aliens are roaming and how they are getting triggered during missions. If you come in sight to discover some of them on the battlefield, the hole alien pack will always get a scripted free reaction movement allowing them to run away, take cover or do whatever. Such script makes combat feel a little less like actually fighting against aliens, but rather fighting scripts, damaging the atmosphere. Also as a dedicated player of "Ufo: Enemy Unknown" i really hoped for some more complexity in this game. Anyways this game is good and since it sold well there sure will be a second one that will most likely get even better. Hopefully also including some more complex game modes for hardcore players then. Expand
  15. Nov 18, 2013
    10
    A wonderful resurrection of a neglected genre, XCOM: Enemy Unknown is simultaneously a breath of fresh air and a nod to a time when games were designed to be fun, not to extract money from customers in an endless parade of overpriced DLC. There are no horrible micro-transactions, no stupid online requirements...just good old-fashioned fun. A full game at a fair price, I can't say enough about how refreshing that feels! The gameplay could be a bit more developed, XCOM could use more tactical options, and less streamlining....but given the shortage of good turn based games, this one is a true gem. I look forward to a full, robust sequel. Expand
  16. Oct 10, 2012
    9
    The original Xcom made me love turn based strategy games, and since then no game has been able to fill that void... Front Mission series and Incubation were close... This new Xcom is the real thing. Shut up and take my money!
  17. Oct 22, 2013
    9
    There are quite a lot of butthurt original X-Com fanbois on here slamming this game and giving it 0 to 3-score reviews, which is utterly ridiculous. It’s like bashing a modern platformer b/c it doesn’t force you to get through 100 levels on 3 lives. XC: EU isn’t perfect but it’s still a lot of fun and doesn’t deserve to be trashed.

    It may not be as complex as the original game but it is
    still very tactical and turn-based, despite many claims here to the contrary. Not sure how some reviewers can compare this to Call of Duty or Mass Effect. Idiotic. There are still difficult decisions to make, as in do you dig open another level of your base, buy another plane, buy another satellite, or research better weapons? Should you investigate that UFO you just shot down or wait b/c your medic & sniper are still recovering from wounds and you’d have to take too many rookies into battle? If you don’t plan & pay attention to what you’re doing, you will have to start all over. You also end up getting attached to your squad members even though they never speak and it’s hard to resist the urge to reload when they die (or when you get faced with a very inconvenient random event between missions one game hour before finishing research on that new armor).

    Some here are even complaining about the “cutscenes” during missions which are actually cinematic visuals of your characters doing what you tell them to do. Sorry, I never got tired of the camera zooming in on one of my guys rounding a corner & shotgunning a baddie at point blank range, or my sniper coolly raising up his rifle & blasting another before they could attack a vulnerable squad mate in the next turn. These are a very cool touch.

    Where I will knock the game is that battles do feel a bit skewed in the AI’s favor. Whenever you stumble upon the enemy, they always see you and essentially get a free movement turn to shuffle around. So if the last guy you move in a turn happens to be the one the aliens see, they immediately get a free move and then will move right away again since their movement turn just started, which most likely means they will swarm whichever squad member is closest. This makes most levels take a long time unless you reload after finding out where the baddies are, as you don’t want to move around the map too quickly.

    And the battles do end up becoming a bit tiresome by the time you reach the end of the game. No way around that after sinking hours & hours into the game.

    Overall, though, it’s an excellent game. Regardless of whether or not the original X-Com is better, XC: EU stands on its own as a great experience.
    Expand
  18. Oct 18, 2012
    9
    I can't even begin to describe how good this game is. I'm not usually the type to go for the tactical RTS but Enemy Unknown is a wonder. This is the first ever XCOM game I've played, and although sometimes i lose pathetically, (started playing IronMan/Classic Mode) i can not stop playing. There's something mesmerizing in all those little driving mechanisms that comprise EU, that just keep me going, be it the story and setting (both of which are executed above par), the characters who are generic and expendable to the point when they get a promotion, and then suddenly, it's a whole new ballgame. The graphics and visual effects are satisfying, although some of the more "refined" players might take issue with that. The sound effects and music are great, and there's something about hearing a sectoid scream after being successfully shot, that makes me feel warm and giddy on the inside. I'm not too far ahead in the game but i strongly believe that this game is worth your money. I hope for a sequel or an expansion pack soon. Expand
  19. Oct 22, 2013
    9
    I can't believe I waited a year to play this title. This is a stunning, stunning game. I can't speak of the older X-COM games as it was before my time, but I'm really surprised that this reboot is getting ANY negative reviews whatsoever.

    The major complaint seems to be that it's "dumbed down" from fans of the overall franchise. I don't think this is the case. The difficulty level here
    is fine; I can imagine it's been streamlined somewhat to make it more accessible to the modern gamer, but that was to be expected. X-COM fans of old need to ask themselves a question; would you rather have a game that has a multitude of vaguely thought out features that could foreseeably ruin the project, or a streamlined experience which is highly polished and still a challenge worthy of the franchise?

    Because XCOM: EU is a top, top strategy title. There's no doubt in my mind that Firaxis have done this franchise proud here. I'll go back and play the older titles, and I'll probably prefer them too, but there's no reason to hate on this game at all.
    Expand
  20. Oct 7, 2013
    9
    Very entertaining strategy game, even for a guy like me who hasn't played the original Xcom. Game is very challenging and nearly sadistic punishing on higher difficulty levels, not that it is a bad thing. Every move has to be planned carefully and charging in without a plan causes you to be squashed like a bug. This is a must buy for any strategy game fan.
  21. Oct 30, 2012
    9
    While not as good as the original, this game is quite enjoyable and keeps the spirit of the original. The combat system has changed a lot but in a good way. I finished the game on normal and started a game in Classic - Ironman. However, the classic mode seems a little outbalanced and it seems to required a specific order in the research/development to succeed since the clock is ticking as the countries get invaded and removed their support to your cause. Expand
  22. Oct 9, 2012
    10
    a true spiritual succesor to the infamous x-com. a brialliant game that my as well along starcraft be the savoir of rts genre on the pc, a genre many claimed to be dying. This game, along with dishonored will keep you busy. PC gamers rejoice, x-com is here to stay.
  23. Nov 12, 2012
    10
    I made a terrible mistake...I didn't realize the game doesn't automatically save (well I did, but i'm lazy and didn't bother to manually save) and got into a situation where my entire team died. All my warriors, battled hardened from several missions: gone. And I was very sad, because I had to start from scratch, either with a bunch of scrubs or a new game. And yet...I'm more determined than ever, and will do better this time, invest in the right things (that are crucial) and ignore the lesser investments until I have the money (I was a noob and didn't realize how important satellites are). I never played the original X-COM, but all I can say is this reminds me so much of Mass Effect 1 and 2, without the silly story (that eventually collapsed in ME3). They clearly borrowed from this series.

    This is an incredible game: ignore the haters and buy this if you have ever enjoyed any game involving tactics. It's clear that they got the essence of what many old-school PC gamers say is the greatest game to ever be released for the computer...looking at this game I wouldn't be surprised if that were true. Easily the Game of the Year, and after less than a day playing it, among Firaxis' best (and they have made a lot of very good games).
    Expand
  24. Mar 8, 2014
    9
    X-COM: Enemy Unknown is high quality. It was a long time since i had a game with more than 50 hours of playing in a week. Since i never play the X-COM classics before, i'm not the one who gonna spit on that game because of some lack of fidelity from the original series, which seems to be what people was most criticizing about. Even the story is good, although is not the focus, and it's not so well explored. You'll have to manage resources, research alien materials, train and customize your soldiers, capture aliens alive to study them, build facilities, weapons, gadgets, robots, all kind of features to help you to deal with an unknown alien menace.

    The biggest part of this game is at turn-based strategy battles, with a third person point of view on shooting enemies or doing another actions.

    I got some minor bugs, mostly concerned the camera movement, which can be very annoying some times, but nothing truly deal breaker.
    Expand
  25. Oct 23, 2012
    10
    Best turn-based strategy game since the original X-COM. Yeah it has its own flavour, and it doesn't shy away from sticking to its own design decisions. What it delivers is just awesome. The single player on classic ironman has insane replayability: enemy AI, challenging combat, challenging strategic layer panic management etc. all provide a compelling experience. The best part is you know that it was your fault that you lost, and you have a good idea what your mistake was to fix it next time. Establishing characters that you actually care for and naming them is addictive. The MP is just an added bonus to annoy your friends with and see if an all floater team can really mess up an archangel sniper, or if a 2 x ghost armour squad is better than an ethereal with sectoid scouts. Expand
  26. Oct 10, 2012
    9
    I think I'm still a ways from beating the game, but being a fan of the original UFO: Enemy Unknown, I've been hooked on this game since its release. Some might think it's been simplified or "dumbed down" in comparison to the original, but I see it more as a sanding of rough edges for smoother gameplay. Admittedly, it would be nice if there were a way to sell more surplus supplies and have squad members pack more inventory, but aside from that, I find the new XCOM to be just as addictive, challenging, and engaging as the original. Considering today's game industry standards, Fireaxis did their best in remastering a classic that came out almost 20 years ago. And if you're gonna cry and complain that it's not "up to par" with the original, then go play with dolls. Expand
  27. Oct 9, 2012
    9
    XCOM is true successor to original game! Unless you are butthurt HC/Elitist then you might think other way. If you have never played turn based strategy/action game rest assure you won't be disappointed! XCOM is awesome mix of tactical combat and strategic management of you base/research and etc. Sound is rock solid aside from generic solders voices. Graphics r great for this kind of the game. And Gameplay will get you hooked in no time. Replay value is tremendous. And if you want quick fix just jump in to the multiplayer. Highly recommend to all true gamers up there! Thank you Dev team and Fraxis for this great Take on the classic game! Expand
  28. Mar 7, 2013
    9
    Loved original X-COM in 90's. This one is definitely not just a remake with contemporary graphics, it's a different game. It is still great as such. I do feel that it was somewhat over-simplified compared to original, especially missed are the inventory and picking up enemy weapons. Still, it provides a great tactical depth, and you have to actually think on your moves, instead of just clicking things very fast. Expand
  29. Jun 25, 2013
    9
    Without a doubt XCOM: Enemy Unknown is one of the better games that have come out recently. It manages to create very athmospheric gaming experience. Especially during first play through, I was genuinely scared since I didn't know what to expect.

    One of the key aspects of the game is managing your base and soldiers, which is lots of fun. Soldiers are very customizable and gain
    experience from missions so you can level them up. You get attached to them and it can be upsetting when you loose them in battle. The game very is streamlined and everything works intuitively. Item management is a bit cumbersome, but otherwise I had no issues with gaming interface.

    The alien design (although a bit cartoony) is also great. Almost all aliens can be devastating in their own way and you can rarely take any enemy troops lightly. Some aliens like cryssalids, berserkers and PSI-using aliens force you act quickly and can really bring panicky feeling to missions. After few missions, your really start to fear them.

    Main weak point of this game are special missions and maps that quickly become repetitive. Also the plot is rather irrelevant after one play through. Still the game has good replay value and gives lots of playtime compared many other titles.

    NOTE: I haven't played the original XCOM games (altough I've seen gameplay video etc.) so I reviewed this title as independent game.
    Expand
  30. Jan 12, 2014
    9
    A solid game, great graphics and sound. Good ui and easy to learn, good story and interesting. I'm not a RTS player but this game hits the mark and well. The only complaint I have was a minor glitch where the enemies shots would go through walls and objects and hit you, other than that its a great game.
  31. Oct 16, 2012
    0
    There's some minor issues, the most annoying of which being that sometimes moving people around inside a UFO is really a hassle due to the roof blocking your view, and other times people won't want to move to high or low ground. Some areas could also be beefed up in complexity (interception), but on the whole they really nailed this one. The game is addictively fun and brilliantly captures the "just one more turn" feeling. Fans of the 1993 version will be able to find things to complain about, as this is not a straight remake. It's a 2012 take on the game, and while not everything is the same the spirit of the classic version is alive and well here. If you're not familiar with the classic X-COM, then any strategy fan should go buy this right now. Collapse
Metascore
89

Generally favorable reviews - based on 57 Critics

Critic score distribution:
  1. Positive: 56 out of 57
  2. Negative: 0 out of 57
  1. 88
    Is it better than the original? No. One can’t imagine X-Com 2012 being an all-time-classic and people still playing with it, months from now (let alone, years). Is it a ‘true’ X-Com game, however? Definitely. Remorseless geeks are in for shivers and swoons when they meet their beloved foes: mind-controlling sectoids, zombifying Chrysalids, Cyberdisks, Ethereals… [December 2012]
  2. Dec 18, 2012
    95
    XCOM: Enemy Unknown is a worthy tribute to its progenitor and hopefully the start of something brand new for players who've been dying to get a good squad-based strategy game that lets them not only think, but feel as well.
  3. Nov 14, 2012
    90
    Amazing tactical complexity, satisfying strategic depth; slightly dodgy ending, but your own stories are more important anyway. A modern classic.